<aside> 🔑 Welcome to the skateboard edition of the DAOstar “Membership via Attestations” working paper. It is being written by DAOstar’s new working group, Voyager Identity (featuring Josh from Metagov, Conner from Station, Mendes from Closer, Balazs from kycDAO, Bryan from Consensys Mesh, and many other contributors).


Simple Summary

An attestation-based data model for DAO membership.


What does it mean to be a member of a DAO, and how can this membership be verified? DAO membership is an important building block within a number of critical Web3 applications, from interoperable reputation scores to Web3 CVs. It is also often the first setting in which DAOs and DAO service providers need to operationalize and test their underlying systems for verifying identity.

Many DAOs and DAO services need to generate, collect, and aggregate membership data. But DAO membership is often hard to define in practice: it might involve token ownership, NFT ownership, some level of active participation (e.g. git commits or Discourse posts), or an offer/acceptance by the DAO to the prospective member. The definition of DAO membership should be extensible enough to cover all of these scenarios and to allow for new, innovative ones. For example, if a DAO decides that its members are the first 1000 users that reply to a tweet, then that condition should be possible to describe and verify.

This standard provides the basic architecture for describing and verifying membership in DAOs via a permissionless attestation framework where different parties can, in principle, make arbitrary attestations. It also substantially expands the membership model described in EIP-4824.



The key words “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.


A membership attestation, or just attestation, is a digital record containing an (attester, organization, member) tuple. For example, a typical DAO attestation is a record containing a (DAO, DAO, member) tuple, meaning that the DAO itself attests that a given person or entity is a member of that DAO. There are at least four types of attestations about membership:

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